Gwynedd Castles and Town Walls of King Edward


Gwynedd Castles and Town Walls of King Edward

The four castles of Beaumaris, Conwy, Caernarfon, Harlech and the attendant fortified towns at Conwy and Caernarfon in Gwynedd, North Wales, are the finest examples of late 13th century and early 14th century military architecture in Europe, as demonstrated through their completeness, pristine state, evidence for organized domestic space, and extraordinary repertory of their medieval architectural form.

The castles as a stylistically coherent group are a supreme example of medieval military architecture designed and directed by James of St George (c. 1230-1309), King Edward I of England’s chief architect, and the greatest military architect of the age.

The extensive and detailed contemporary technical, social, and economic documentation of the castles, and the survival of adjacent fortified towns at Caernarfon and Conwy, makes them one of the major references of medieval history.

Official website

Did you know..?

At its peak, there were 15,000 men working in the slate industry

Over 70% of the population of Gwynedd’s slate communities speak Welsh

The longest dispute in British industrial history occurred at Penrhyn Quarry, Bethesda during the Great Strike of 1900-1903

It is estimated that Gwynedd’s slate industry exported enough slate between 1800-1940 to roof approximately 14 million terraced houses


Location: Gwynedd, North Wales

Country: United Kingdom

Year of Inscription: 1986

UNESCO Criteria: (i), (iii), (iv)

Contact information:

For more information about Gwynedd Castles and Town Walls of King Edward, visit the website or contact visitor information on +44 (0) 333 006 3001